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常见问题及回答 FAQ

*我们的基本目标是什么?*

我们所做的正回应了哈佛大学教授-- 爱德华·奥斯本·威尔逊提出的惊人见解,他指出了全世界正面临的一个最重大的问题: It's to respond to a startling insight by Harvard professor E.O. Wilson pointing out one of the world's greatest problems:

“每一个国家都拥有三种财富,即:物质、文化以及生物方面的财富。前两种广为我们所了解,因为他们是我们日常生活中的重要构成。而生物多样化领域所存在的问题之重要性在于生物资源所受到的重视程度远不如前面两者。这是一个重大的战略性的错误,它会随着时间的推移变得愈加教人惋惜。生物的多样化对于大量未经开发的物质财富,无论是从食物的供给、药物的研发还是改变人们生活的舒适程度等方面而言是深具潜力的资源宝库。”"Every country has three forms of wealth: material, cultural, and biological. The first two we understand well because they are the substance of our everyday lives. The essence of the biodiversity problem is that biological wealth is taken much less seriously. This is a major strategic error, one that will be increasingly regretted as time passes. Diversity is a potential source for immense untapped material wealth in the form of food, medicine, and amenities." (The Diversity of Life, 1992, p. 311)

我们所作出的回应是为了创造一个以科学为基础的社会决策中心网络,它会建立在那些生物多样化因素最为濒危的辖区,并标注出这些因素存在的确切位置,以提供给项目开发策划方和决策方,并将这些信息向所有参与者公开,并不断进行信息内容的更新 。事实上,我们已经打造并建立了一个约有一百个信息中心的网络,而现在的目标是将这个网络扩展到新的地区-为了建立起一座有用的桥梁,并非只是出于友谊,而更多的是为了相互之间的学习和交流。 The response is to create a network of science-based social decision-making centers which establish within a jurisdiction which elements of biodiversity are the most imperiled, locates these elements precisely on maps usable by project planners and decision-makers, makes this information available to all stakeholders, and updates it -- forever. In fact, we have already created and established a network of nearly one hundred such centers, and the task now is to bring this network to new continents -- to build useful bridges, not simply of friendship but of mutual learning and exchange.

*何为“自然遗产保护决策/数据中心”?* * What is a "Natural Heritage Conservation Decision/Data Center"?

自然遗产决策保护中心的核心是拥有一支由当地科学家所构成的全职团队,收集、处理、分析并提供所有该辖区生物多样化因素方面的数据。根据目前可用的资源,可以相应的增加一些职位,例如:外联人员、气候变化方面的专家等。我们的团队和政府部门和其它机构合作,并帮助他们通过利用自然遗产保护决策中心的数据来进行规划并回顾所作出的努力。在对于因信息缺失而无法参与到这些举措的团体,我们采取了特别的措施与之沟通。(例如,在美国,我们特别为纳瓦霍建了个保护中心。)在亚洲地区,我们的团队成员受生物多样化保护组织的专门培训,这是一个国际性的自然保护组织。培训的内容是 “自然遗产”方法论的核心内容,该方法论被用于遍布全美各州、加拿大各省以及拉丁美洲很多地区的保护中心网络,它现在被生物多样化保护中心带到了中国和中亚地区。 The core of a NHCDC is a staff of local scientists working full-time at collecting, processing, analyzing, and providing data on all of the "elements" of the biodiversity of a jurisdiction. Depending on resources available, other positions can be added such as stakeholder outreach, climate change specialist, etc. Staff partner with government agencies and others and help them utilize NHCDC data in planning and review efforts. Special effort is made to inform groups effectively excluded from participation through lack of information. (In the US, we built a center for the Navajo, for example). In Asia, the staff is trained by The BioDiversity Conservancy (BDC), a new international conservation organization. The training is in core "Natural Heritage" methodology used by all centers in a very large network covering the states/provinces of the US and Canada, a significant portion of Latin America, and now being brought to China and Central Asia by BDC.

该方法论已被证实很成功。它于1974年问世,而今已被长期采用。它由标准化数据结构所组成,其中包括有为收集、处理、分析以及提供给决策者在其做切实可行的计划和项目回顾时所需的生物多样化数据而制定的标准程序。 The methodology is a proven success. It has endured since 1974 and is now permanent. It consists of normalized data structures containing standardized protocols for gathering, processing, analyzing and making available biodiversity data useful to decision-makers in need of such data for practical planning and review purposes.

*你所说的“生物多样化的所有要素”是什么意思? * * What do you mean by "all of the elements of biodiversity"?

这里的要素 a)从一方面来讲,指的是动植物的种类,b)从另外一方面将,指的是生态系统类型。“生态多样化的所有要素”意思是指某个国家所有动植物种类及其生态系统类型。其中更为强调维管植物和有脊椎动物,当然也包括非维管植物和无脊椎动物,其范围只因时间、资源以及在该国对这些生物体的认知程度而受到限制。微生物也可被归为特例,不过通常会被视为生态系统类别的组成部分。 "Elements" are a) species of plants and of animals, on the one hand, and b) ecosystem-types, on the other. "All of the elements of biodiversity" means all of the species of plants and animals and ecosystem-types in the country. Emphasis is given to vascular plants and vertebrate animals, but non-vascular plants and invertebrates are also included, limited only by time, resources, and the state of knowledge of these organisms in the country. Micro-organisms can in special cases be included also, but are generally treated as components of ecosystem-types.

生态系统类型包括了整个国家内所有多样化物种。他们构成了全国范围内存在于陆地上和水域中生物种群的完整分类。生态系统类型中所包含的生物群中有些个别物种尚未被识别,也正是出于该原因,自然遗产决策保护中心将生态系统归入生物多样化因素中,收集了大量相关数据。生态系统类型对生物多样化而言就是个“粗筛”,相比之下,关于个别物种的数据则属于“细筛”。对于生态系统类型的分类是整个自然遗产方法论的一个特别的部分。其分类规则是为自然遗产保护网络工作的生态学家历经多年而制定的,而且还在持续不断的进行研究。 Ecosystem-types subsume the total biodiversity of the country. They constitute a complete classification of all of the country's land and water areas. Ecosystem-types contain biota some of the individual species of which have not yet been identified by science, and it is for this reason that the NHCDC includes ecosystem-types among the elements on which it amasses data. Ecosystem-types represent a "coarse filter" on biodiversity, compared to the "fine filter" that data about individual species represents. Classification of ecosystem types is a special part of the overall Natural Heritage methodology. The protocols of classification have been worked out by ecologists in the network over many years and are constantly being researched.

*自然遗产保护决策中心的任务是什么?请介绍一下它所包含的数据 * * What is the mission of a NHCDC? Give me an idea of its data.

自然遗产保护决策中心的任务是提供与生物多样化要素相关的客观、科学的数据,为在进行资源管理时能更理性且更聪明合理的推进发展和开展保护工作。该数据包括对于所有物种和生态系统方面相对情势更为严峻的物种排名以及物种生命史的信息。对那些被认定为稀少的要素,对每个单独要素的发生地都在地图中被精确地标明。这些所发现的要素也都被录入数据库中,从而记录的数字会被保存下来,而相对濒危物种的排名也都是根据这些数字而得出的,而不是无凭的估算。数据库包括有全面的操作手则、地图以及电脑文件。 The NHCDC mission is to provide objective scientific data on elements of biodiversity for the purposes of rational resource management and intelligent development and conservation. This data consists of relative criticality rankings and life history information for all species and ecosystems. For those elements thought to be rare, precise locations for each individual occurrence of the element are mapped. These occurrences are also entered into the database, so that documented numbers can be obtained and relative criticality rankings can be based on these numbers rather than on estimates. The database consists of comprehensive manual, map, and computer files.

当数据库系统已经成熟,成千上万的记录资料被录入其中,而这只是来自于许多国家,动用了大量人员投入其中所做的千分之十。标准化格式和规则构成了“自然遗产”方法论。 The NHCDC data system consists of hundreds of standardized data record formats. Into these formats are entered, as the data center matures, thousands of records -- tens of thousands in the case of large countries with large staffs. The standardized formats and protocols constitute "Natural Heritage" methodology.

* * * What does a NHCDC do?

a) 收集数据 自然遗产保护决策中心特别关注的是收集被列为具有高危要素的物种或是被视作有特别意义的物种所在区域的数据。而自然遗产保护决策中心收集这些数据时并非只是随便收集这些相关要素信息,甚至不是通过梳理某些具有科学研究意义的已知要素而决定的,更多的是通过系统的列表、核实、定位并对所有的要素进行优先分级。自然遗产保护决策中心也收集了其它很多种类的数据。自然遗产保护决策中心现将所有现有数据进行合并,然后再根据录入的数据优先分级,再野外考察那些被视作稀有要素的物种,以填补空白,而其已经在数据库中进行过识别 。 a) Collect data. The NHCDC focuses particularly on collecting data on the precise locations of each element believed to rank high in terms of vulnerability or otherwise thought to be of interest. The NHCDC collects this data not by randomly gathering information about these elements, or even by inventorying certain known elements of scientific interest, but rather by systematically listing, ranking, verifying, locating, and prioritizing all elements. The NHCDC collects many other types of data as well. The NHCDC first incorporates all existing sources of data and then, using priorities derived from this effort, undertakes field work on elements believed to be rare and to fill any significant gaps which have been identified in the data.

b) 处理数据 所有收集到的数据都会根据标准程序被录入到电脑、地图和操作手则当中。数据处理函数的质控非常重要,而且是中心数据管理员的全责。自然遗产保护决策中心在高精地图上标出重要要素所在的区域,它有着非常强大、实用的功能(而不像很多电子地图只是“一片空白上有个点”),而且能够对负责决定如何进行土地规划的人员提供大用。 b) Process data. All data collected is processed into computer, map, and manual files according to standardized protocols. Quality control of the data processing function is strongly emphasized and is the overall responsibility of the center's data manager. The NHCDC maps element locations on fine-scale maps that have practical utility (unlike many "dots on white space" maps produced by GIS systems) and which can be used efficaciously by persons charged with making decisions about how land is to be used.

c) 分析数据 自然遗产保护决策中心对每个物种要素的发生几率进行计算,然后对该国每种生物多样化要素的先后排名进行调整。所作出的调整是根据计算的结果和其它的变化因素而决定的,比如是否该区域已受到保护还是尚未采取保护措施。自然遗产保护决策中心根据收到的特殊要求对数据进行分析,并会对其觉得有用的数据进行定期总结并生成报告。这些分析结果尤其有助于消除在排列生物多样化优先等级时毫无根据的看法,并建档和保存那些真正需要优先保护的物种。 c) Analyze data. The NHCDC counts the number of occurrences of each element and continually revises the priority ranks assigned to each element of biodiversity within the country. These revisions are based on these numbers and on other verifiable factors, such as whether the locations are on protected or unprotected landscape. The NHCDC analyzes its database in connection with responses to ad hoc requests for data as well as in connection with regular summaries and reports it finds useful to make. These analyses typically both dispel unfounded beliefs about biodiversity priorities and establish and document real biodiversity priorities.

d) 提供数据并和需要这些数据的机构进行合作 自然遗产保护决策中心的目标是为了保护生物多样化要素中最脆弱的个体免遭破坏。因此,他们为那些需要这些数据的机构和个人提供优先保护对象的数据以及那些高危物种所在的确切地域,譬如提供给规划项目建设并对其为该地所产生的影响进行评估的政府部门、商业计划开发项目、现有保护项目的管理者等,从而他们可以了解他们所保护物种的状态,涉及到环保方面的组织以及试图扩大对于生物多样化要素方面的科学依据的研究人员等。 自然遗产保护决策中心采用的是合作的模式。 他们寻找那些可以提供生物多样化保护数据以及那些需要生物多样化保护数据并将其运用到实际操作中的合作伙伴。自然遗产保护决策中心寻求的是和这些机构建立起双向的互助关系,而且实际上在大部分的网络运作中,他们得到了需要这些数据并且最能将其运用到他们实际工作中的机构的支持。 d) Provide data and partner with those who need it. The goal of all NHCDCs is to prevent destruction of the most vulnerable elements of biodiversity. They thus provide their data about conservation priorities and about the specific location of the most vulnerable elements to those who need it -- government agencies planning or reviewing projects that affect the landscape, businesses planning developments, managers of existing preserves so that they can know the status of elements they manage, organizations involved in conservation, and researchers seeking to expand scientific knowledge of the elements of biodiversity. NHCDCs work on a partnership model. They seek to partner both with those who supply data relevant to biodiversity conservation and those who need biodiversity conservation data in the very utilitarian manner in which NHCDCs can provide it. NHCDCs seek out mutual supportive relationships with all of these entities, and in fact in most of the network they are supported by agencies which need their data and are most able to use it in their work.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心还做什么别的工作? * * What else does the NHCDC do?

自然遗产保护决策中心着手将所有保护区以及其它受保护区域,还有其它所有由专人管理的区域在其地图上标出界限。这部分重要数据与生物多样化要素所在的区域紧密相关,从而可以确定当地哪些要素已经受到保护而哪些还没有。 The NHCDC enters onto its maps the boundaries of all reserves and other protected areas, as well of all other areas that have some sort of manager. This important data is correlated with locations of elements of biodiversity in order to determine which elements fall on land already protected and with ones do not.

每个目标物种的生命史及其管理数据也会被收集。在某些案例中,此类数据必须要进行更新。在其它案例中,该类数据已是直接可用的,鉴于已有其它自然遗产保护决策中心对这些物种或生态系统类型进行追踪,而在该国周边有其它自然遗产保护决策中心存在的话,这种搭便车的可能性就会大大增加。这提高了所有自然遗产保护决策中心的工作效率,因为不同地区的相同数据无须一再被录入。 Life history and management data on each of the target species is also collected. In some cases such data has to be generated anew. In others it is already available directly from other NHCDC's which also track these species or ecosystem-types obviously, the possibility of this sort of piggybacking increases the more there are other NHCDC's near your country. This increases the efficiency of all NHCDC's since this data does not have to be regenerated over and over again in new jurisdictions.

自然遗产保护决策中心编汇了关于全国范围内的生物多样化要素信息资源的海量数据。自然遗产保护决策中心所拥有的全部数据都被进行了记录以供使用。因此有一个完整的数据来源档案是至关重要的。 The NHCDC compiles extensive data on sources of information about the country's elements of biodiversity. All data contained in the NHCDC is documented as to source. It is thus crucial to have a complete file of sources.

自然遗产保护决策中心也提供数据。它和土地管理者以及各类项目策划人一同合作,并告知其他们要采取的行动会对生物多样化要素的状况产生何种影响。自然遗产保护决策中心也和其他研究人员合作,对数据库进行整理以及对数据的优先排序。 The NHCDC provides data. It works with land managers and planners of all kinds and informs them of the true status of the elements of biodiversity their actions will affect. The NHCDC works with other researchers in setting further inventory and data gathering priorities.

以上内容只是自然遗产保护决策中心所涉及到的其它任务及其功能的部分例子。 These are only some examples of other tasks and functions performed by the NHCDC.

* 数据是从哪儿来的? * * Where does the data come from? *

一开始的数据是通过对于间接资料源头进行全面搜索而来的,其对象包括博物馆的收藏、相关的文章、未公开发表的报告、学识渊博的科学家、经验丰富的土地管理人员、政府人员以及其它。该数据一经导入系统,自然遗产保护决策中心的科学工作者们就开始着手野外作业,以确定物种最关键要素所存在的地区并搜集其它情况。因此,这是一个一旦开始就不会停止的过程:数据库一直在持续不断的更新中,有新的信息被载入,因此才能为决策者提供“永远最新”的数据。 Initially, from a comprehensive search of secondary sources, including museum collections, the literature, unpublished reports, knowledgeable scientists, experienced land managers, government employees and others. Once this data has been incorporated into the system, the scientific staff of the NHCDC begins to do field work to confirm locations for the most important of these elements and to search for additional occurrences. Thus begins a process which never ends: the database is continually updated with additional information, so that it provides "always current" data to decision-makers.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心是如何建立并招人的?它使用的是什么语言? * * How will the NHCDC be set up and staffed? What language is used? *

自然遗产保护决策中心为其在当地的成立与该地区相关机构建立合作关系,由其在当地招募、培训和监督工作人员,其职员负责中心的建立和管理工作。合作方由当地研究机构以及国际专家团队组成,其中国际专业团队负责提供所需的技术力量。一般而言,基本工作团队由植物学家、动物学家、生态学家以及数据管理员各一名组成,不过对于面积广大的国家,则需要更多的团队成员加入。 The NHCDC will be set up and administered by local scientific staff hired, trained and supervised under a partnership put together specifically for this purpose. The partnership consists of a local research organization and an international expertise-provider which transfers the technology. Traditionally, the beginning staff consists of a botanist, a zoologist, an ecologist and a data manager, though larger countries sometimes begin with larger staffs.

给到当地决策者的数据报告(报告以及其它资料)都是用当地语言写的。数据中心的工作人员都是当地人而且用当地的语言开展工作。他们电脑的工作平台也是用的当地语言。从当地资料库和个人那儿收集到的数据(并且已经被录入到数据库中)也是用的当地语言。当然,物种名称用的是拉丁语。然而因为所有的科学项目都与全球各地的科学家有交集,英语当然也起着很重要的作用。特别是在数据中心初建阶段,对中心的工作人员进行培训以及安装数据库系统时会用到英语,因为专家在进行培训时使用的是英语,而且系统归档的基本语言是英语。 Data products (reports and other products) given to local decision-makers are in the local language. The staff of the data center are native speakers of the local language and conduct their business in that language. The forms that appear on their computer screens are in the local language. Data collected from local repositories and individuals (and processed into the database) is in the local language. Latin, of course, is used for species' names. As with all scientific projects connected to the global community of scientists, English also plays an important role. It is used particularly for the set-up period in which staff are trained and the database is installed, since the expertise-providers use English in training and since documentation of the system is primarily in English.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心依靠什么为支持? * * How is the NHCDC supported? *

自然遗产保护决策中心的试行期为三到五年。在试运行期间,它一般是依靠各种基金维持运作,其资金来源包括以下几个:主办方、公司、国际组织、慈善基金、个人捐款等。通常他们以提供实物的方式来支持,譬如办公场所,是由参与项目的研究所提供的。试运行期间资金模式因国家的不同而各有差异。 The NHCDC is launched for a pilot period of three to five years. During the pilot period, it is generally supported by a combination of funds, which can come from some or all of the following: a host agency, corporations, international agencies, charitable foundations, philanthropic individuals. Often valuable in-kind services, such as office space, are contributed from participating institutions. Pilot period funding patterns vary from country to country.

在试运行后期,当自然遗产保护决策中心投入运作已经有一段时间,后续的资金来源则由那些认为该中心有用的机构和个人所提供。一般说来,当自然遗产保护决策中心变得对决策者非常有存在价值的时候,这会引导他们去协助保护中心的工作人员寻求维持长期运作的方法和出路。在这儿也必须特别指出的是维持一个自然遗产保护决策中心要比建立一个新的开支要小得多,因为许多初期开始所需的成本(例如:培训、数据系统的安装、质量监控流程、项目进度跟踪手段以及其它)都是一次性的成本投入,因此在试运行阶段进入尾声时这些成本已经经由时间的流逝而被消化掉了。 At the end of the pilot period, when the NHCDC has long been up and running, the sources of funding for continuity come from those who have found the NHCDC useful. Generally, as the NHCDC reaches the end of its pilot period, the database it has amassed becomes extremely valuable to decision-makers, and this leads them to assist the NHCDC staff in finding ways to continue it on a permanent basis. It should also be noted that it is less expensive to continue a NHCDC than to initiate it, since many startup costs (training, data system installation, quality control procedures, progress tracking methods, among others) are onetime capital investments and thus have already been fully absorbed by the time the pilot period ends.

* 这是一个地理信息系统吗? * * Is this a GIS?

Yes, though geographic information systems (GIS) are different things to different people. In the sense of spatially organized data, the root idea of all GIS, a NHCDC is a perfect example of a GIS. For some people, however, GIS means particular software systems. No particular piece of GIS software, however, is necessary in order for the NHCDC to operate.

For the NHCDC, the key things are is its underlying biodiversity conceptual scheme and the standardized methodology derived therefrom, not the software in which this is implemented.

The data the NHCDC provides is spatially organized data. As such, this data is highly compatible with all GIS software and provides key data layers to any such system. Typical implementations of GIS software are traditionally strong on graphic display and weak on database management. The NHCDC is compatible with any graphic display and is both deep and strong when it comes to database management.

对,这是一个地理信息系统,尽管地理信息系统对于不同的人有不同的意义。从空间管理数据的意义上而言,它关于到所有地理信息系统的根本理念,自然遗产保护决策中心就是一个绝佳的例子。然而,对于某些人,地理信息系统则是特殊的软件系统。但其实自然遗产保护决策中心并不需要某种专门的地理信息系统才能运作。对自然遗产保护中心而言,重点在于其潜含的生物多样化概念模式,而不是它所装载的是哪个软件。自然遗产保护决策中心所提供的数据是空间管理数据。就其本身而论,该类数据是与所有的地理信息系统软件高度匹配的,而且为任何这类软件系统提供核心数据图层。传统意义上,地理信息系统更擅长图形显示而在数据库管理方面则较弱。自然遗产保护决策中心与任何图形显示相匹配,而且在数据库管理方面则有着更深层、强大的能力。显然,自然遗产保护决策中心是“适用科技”的一个典型例子。自然遗产保护决策中心的核心预算并不包括购买昂贵的地理信息系统软件以及员工方面的成本,然而这方面的成本待到其用途已经得到证实且找到了可以为此提供资金支持的赞助者时可以被加进去。 By necessity, the NHCDC is an example of "appropriate technology." The core budget of the NHCDC does not include expensive GIS software or staff, though this can be added when it proves useful and donors can be found who will make this possible.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心是如何起作用的? * * How is the NHCDC useful?

The NHCDC database contains specific numbers and details on the status and exact locations for each important species and ecosystem-type. The database thus deals quantitatively with precisely those aspects of biodiversity about which decision-makers require information in order to set rational priorities. decision-makers, whether developers, conservationists, resource managers, or researchers, can generally be made amenable all other things being equal to directing development to places which will do the least to destroy overall biodiversity.

自然遗产保护决策中心数据库包括关于每种重要物种和生态系统类型状态及具体位置的特定数字和详情。然而从数量上而言,所提供的数据与决策者需要哪方面的生物多样化信息确实相关,从而让其可以作出更理性的优先排序。而决策者,无论是开发商、环保人士、资源管理员或是研究人员通常都有必要将其它所有的方面与地区发展放在同等重要的地位,从而尽可能减小对整个生物多样性的损害。当然在许多情况下,所有其它的方面所处的地位并不平等。在这些情况下,自然遗产保护决策中心全部能做的就是知会项目参与者具体哪些生物多样化的要素会因为他们的决定而遭受损失和影响,并将其记录下来。生物多样化保护决策中心的目标非常实际而非乌托邦式的理想主义。然而,把发展自然保护的决策要么看作一个整体,要么什么决定都不做,都是错误的。通常来讲,他们不是像那样的。一般说来,实事求是的改变能变成可以减轻或消除对生物多样化影响的发展对策。为了能够促成这些改变,然而也为了让他们更具说服力,我们需要有关于以下两方面的准确信息,其中包括:在发展计划中将会受到影响的生态多样化要素所在的地区及其状态。 In many cases, of course, all other things are not equal. In these cases, all the NHCDC is able to do is inform the participants of precisely what biodiversity will be lost or affected by their decisions and to document this. The NHCDC's goals are realistic, not Utopian. It is a mistake, however, to think of all development conservation decisions as all or nothing decisions. Typically, they are not like that. Typically, realistic modifications can be made to a proposed development which will mitigate, or even eliminate, its impact on biodiversity. In order to be able to come up with these modifications, however and in order for them to be persuasive it is necessary to have precise information about two things: the locations and the status of all elements of biodiversity affected by the proposal.

这类精准的信息正是自然遗产保护决策中心所拥有的。通过提供真实的数据和明确的地理位置,自然遗产保护决策中心能够拿出切实的修改方案,而且更有意义的是让生物多样化保护成为实际的可能。 This is precisely the sort of information the NHCDC has. By presenting real numbers and specific locations, the NHCDC is able to come up with realistic modifications and in a meaningful sense make biodiversity conservation possible.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心可以促进当地的经济发展吗? * * Can the NHCDC even contribute to local economic growth?

是的,它可以,在很多方面都可以。首先,通过帮助发展方实施其项目,将其会造成影响的资源库与项目本身理性结合。所设计的项目能达到保护宝贵生物多样化资源的目的,然而也能为项目发展方创造其所寻求的经济效益,这即是将会遭到该项目影响的资源库与项目本身理性结合。自然遗产保护决策中心提供的就是为此类设计所需的相关数据。 Yes, it can, in a number of ways. First, by helping developers undertake projects which are rationally related to the resource base they will impact. A project designed so as to preserve valuable biodiversity resources, yet produce for the developer the economic returns he seeks, is a project that is rationally related to the resource base it will impact. The NHCDC provides just the sort of data needed for designs of this sort.

其次,当地经济的发展需要是长期的而非只是短期发展。通过提供实施哪类项目对生物多样化冲击最小或是对生物多样化的影响较小的相关数据,自然遗产保护决策中心能帮助确定当地的资源基础不会浪费在短期的项目上,这些项目从长远而言会引发重大的问题。 Second, local economic growth needs to occur in the long term, not just in the short term. By providing data about what projects can be undertaken with minimal biodiversity impact, or even just a lesser biodiversity impact, the NHCDC can help ensure that the resource base is not wasted on short term projects which in the long term will create significant problems.

其三,在收集物种生命史信息的同时也在收集关于现在以及潜在经济用途要素的数据。其中包括医学、工业及农业方面的用途。将这类数据和在当地实际发生的数据相匹配,可以引导我们用更好的方式在可持续利用的基础上对这些资源进行开发。 Third, data about present and potential economic uses of elements is collected along with the other life history information. These include medicinal, industrial, and agricultural uses. Coupling this data with actual occurrence data in the country may lead to sound ways to exploit these resources on a sustainable basis.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心是如何帮助资源管理的? * * How does the NHCDC aid resource management?

让我们假设一下一个资源管理者面临着两个选择,A和B,两者在花费同样成本的情况下都能完成任务。同样,让我们再来假设一下B选项相比A选项可以保护更多高度重要的生物多样化要素。显而易见的是,在这些情况下,管理者将会选择B。而问题在于管理者几乎很少,如果有的话,拥有足够的信息来帮其判定“B”要比“A”能保护更多高度重要的要素。按照决策论的说法,他们依据相当有限的知识/了解来采取行动。即便他们取得了足够充分的信息,对其所管理的区域进行了详尽的研究,同时还掌握了所有物种要素名单,其中包括确切的地理位置等信息,他们所有的信息也仍然不够完善。他们所需要的是其它地区(即,在他们管辖范围以外的其它地区)关于相同物种要素的数据。只用通过这种方式他们才可以得知,对于在他们管辖范围内的每个物种要素的状态是否正常或稀有,以及其是否是不太重要或是需要受到保护。 Let's suppose a resource manager is presented with two alternatives, A and B, both of which accomplish the mission at the same cost. Let us also suppose that alternative B preserves more high priority elements of biodiversity than A. It is clear that, in these circumstances, the manager would choose B. The problem is that managers seldom, if ever, possess enough information to determine that "B preserves more high priority elements than A." In the language of decision theory, they act under imperfect knowledge. Even if they are terrifically well-informed, have studied their land intensively, and have a list of all elements on it, including exact locations, they still have imperfect knowledge. What they need is data from other areas (areas outside the land they themselves manage) on those same elements. Only in this way will they be able to know, for each element on their land, its status whether it is common or rare, whether it is dispensable or deserving of protection.

为了确保有些要素在常识范围内被认为是非常普通的,然而土地管理者,甚至,甚至没有记录详实的数据库的情况下,还是可以,考虑到这些物种要素,采取理性措施。同样的,个别要素可能在常识范围内被认定为稀有(尽管有时候“常识”是非正确的,正如所有科学家所了解的那样。) To be sure, some elements are known as general knowledge to be very common, and thus the manager, even without a well documented database, can, with respect to these elements, proceed rationally. Likewise, individual elements may be known to be rare on the basis of general knowledge (though sometimes "general knowledge" is incorrect, as any scientist knows).

但是实际上大部分物种要素,其状态没有被自然遗产保护决策中心所记录的话,人们对它们知之甚少,因此也不可能对其进行理性的判断,究竟是采用“A”方案还是“B”方案。 But in fact the bulk of elements, without a NHCDC to document their status, are poorly known, and it would thus be impossible to rationally prefer B to A or vice versa.

更糟糕的事,一旦一个正在进行的项目系统地记录该地物种的数量和所处地区,就会发现有很多被认为是稀有的事物其实并非稀有。这实际上也是自然遗产保护决策中心长期以来的经验:当数据收集和处理在进行过程中,会发现很多一开始被认为是稀有的要素只是分布零散,却非不常见。随着时间的推移,则显现出这些物种要素的状态比之前想的要好得多。土地管理者真正需要的是—所有这些管理者最需要的—是自然遗产保护决策中心对于该国物种所记录的全面数据,这些数据包括已经记录在案的数据,然后将在某个地区所有相关物种要素的真实状态提供给土地管理者。 Worse, a number of things believed to be rare are in fact not rare, once an ongoing program systematically records their numbers and locations. This in fact has been the historical experience of NHCDC's: as data collection and processing proceeds, many elements initially thought to be rare are found to be sparsely distributed but not uncommon. Over time, the status of these elements is shown to be less critical than previously thought. What the manager really needs -- what all such managers really need -- is data from a comprehensive NHCDC for the country, which data consists of documented numbers that then give the true status of all of the elements on the particular land he or she manages.

* 于此的很多方面取决于比较,但是否地点是不可能进行比较的呢? * * A lot of this depends on comparisons, but aren't sites impossible to compare?

传统的数据列表记录都是从一个地区开始又在另一个地区结束,一般在对地区间的界限以及支持在大部分不同的单位进行基础对比方面的表现差强人意。自然遗产保护决策中心为规避这种情况而把整个地区依照每个物种要素发生地而进行划分,即按每个地点都是物种要素出现的地方。这些个体的发生状况都是严格可对比的数据,因为所有的数据都是按照相同的标准化准则进行区分的。所有位置或区域的优先级别直接用于判定相关个体要素是否稀有,这些个体要素被证实在那些地区出现,而且如果有的话,在一定程度上表明其脆弱性。 Traditional inventories start with sites and end with sites, usually doing a poor job of defining site boundaries and permitting grossly different units to serve as the basis of comparison. The NHCDC circumvents this by treating the entire landscape in terms of individual occurrences of elements -- individual locations where elements occur. These individual occurrences are strictly comparable data units because all are defined using the same standardized criteria. The overall priority of any site, or area, then becomes a direct function of the relative rareness of the individual elements which are demonstrated to occur there and on the relative degree of vulnerability, if any, of those elements.

这个状况在我们已经发表的讨论自然遗产保护决策中心基础理论的文章中有详细介绍。现在足以说明自然遗产保护决策中心在提供利用严格可对比数据单元且在列出物种要素状态的详情方面,创造了一个为做出真实对比和判断真正优先级别和意愿的前提,同时进行人口统计,更有利于做出理性决策。 This matter is taken up further in papers we have posted discussing the underlying theory of the NHCDC. Here it suffices to say that the NHCDC, in providing utilizing strictly comparable data units and in laying out the details of element status, creates a context for making true comparisons and judging true priorities and will, as does a census of the human population, facilitate rational decisionmaking.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心如何能够长期提供“一直都是最新”的数据? * * How can the NHCDC provide "always-current" data?

自然遗产保护决策中心是低成本高收益的。常常,传统研究的工作始于重复进行从前已经做过的研究,要么是因为之前的研究不为后人所知,要么是因为他们采用的方式有别于其它后续研究人员所喜欢的方式。而自然遗产保护决策中心所做的工作,则反之,一直是从以前所没有做完的工作开始着手。数据库是从上一代到下一代一直持续地增添新内容,因为它是基于严格可对比、海量的数据单位,通过运用明确的记录流程进行记载。 The NHCDC is cost-effective. So often, traditional research efforts start out by redoing work done by previous studies, either because the previous studies are unknown to a later generation or because they were undertaken using methods different from those favored by subsequent investigators. Efforts undertaken by the NHCDC, on the contrary, always start up precisely where previous efforts left off. The database is additive from one generation to the next because it is based on strictly comparable, quantifiable units recorded using clearly documented protocols.

Additionally, the NHCDC allocates its resources in the most cost effective manner. Rather than describing or reconfirming common things over and over again, or trying to compare vaguely defined and ultimately incommensurable sites, the NHCDC concentrates effort on elements of documented rarity or about which there is a documented need to know more.

此外,自然遗产保护决策中心用最节约成本却高效的方式对其资源进行定位。相较于描述或是对同样的事物一再进行确认,又或是尝试去对分类模糊且根本无从对比的地区进行对比,自然遗产保护决策中心将其主要精力都集中在所记录的稀有物种要素或关于哪些已经有所记录的要素需要更多的为人们所了解。因为自然遗产保护决策中心是低成本高收益,所以能够形成制度化并成为长期的举措。这意味着它所从事的活动可以一直持续,而且能一直着眼于对数据收集的最优先等级。这让它能一直提供“总是最新”的数据。 Because the NHCDC is cost effective it can become institutionalized and a permanent activity. This means that its activities can be continuous, and it can perpetually focus on the top priorities for data gathering. This enables it to provide "always current" data.

* 谁在使用自然遗产保护决策中心的数据? * * Who uses the NHCDC?

一旦数据库建成,大量的时间被用在响应各种机构/个人发出的数据请求,这些单位其中包括: Once the database is built, much time is spent responding to data requests from, among others, the following:

-- Government agencies doing environmental assessments or engaged in management of land they own; -- Corporations seeking to better manage their land or in need of data for the purpose of making siting or extraction decisions; -- Universities training new generations of scientists; -- Organizations working to conserve species or ecosystems; -- Grantmakers seeking to allocate resources efficiently; -- Consultants doing environmental impact statements on behalf of a client; -- Individual scientists doing research. - 政府机构 对环境进行评估或是从事对其辖区土地的管理工作 - 企业 寻求能够更好管理其土地或是需要相关数据以用于对地点的选择或做开发决策 - 大学 培养新一代科学家 - 机构/组织 从事保护物种或生态系统方面的工作 - 被赞助的非营利性组织 寻求能够有效定位资源的方式 - 环境顾问 为客户提供自然环境所受影响的评估 - 科学家(个人)研究工作

* 自然遗产保护决策中心在研究中扮演什么样的角色? * * What role can the NHCDC play in research?

它让定位新的研究方向时更有效率。通过对真实数据空白进行确认,即那些尚处于未知状态的物种要素,从而将研究方向确定在填补这些空白,而且相较于对于以前已经做过的工作再次重复,还能够补充在该国生物多样化方面的新知识。这种确定新的研究工作的方法比现有的那些没有任何标准,仅仅依靠研究人员个人兴趣而定的传统方式要理性的多。事实上,当数据空白被大量填补,也仅仅只是自然遗产保护决策中心能做到这一点,基本上所有的研究人员都愿意努力帮助填补这些空白,而其也为其它的科学家增加了新的研究工作。 It enables more effective targeting of new research. By identifying real data gaps -- elements whose status is unknown -- research can be targeted to fill these gaps and can add something new to knowledge of the country's biodiversity rather than duplicating efforts made in the past. This method of targeting new research work is more rational than present methods which generally are not judged by any standard and simply reflect the personal interests of a given researcher. In fact, when data gaps are demonstrated quantitatively, as only a NHCDC can, almost all individual researchers prefer to pursue efforts which help close these gaps and which thus are additive to the work of other scientists.

* 自然遗产保护决策中心是当地组织还是国际组织? * * Is the NHCDC local or international?

数据系统将会是由当地科学工作者建立,这些团队成员为中心所雇佣、培训并且由中心在当地的合作伙伴监督管理。合作伙伴的基本目标之一是传递作为自然遗产保护决策中心基础的科技手段。所以,自然遗产保护决策中心既是地区性的也是国际性的组织:它通过运用国际化的工作方法在当地运作。 The data system will be created by local scientific staff hired, trained and supervised by a partnership put together specifically for this purpose. One of the principal purposes of the partnership is transfer of the technology that underlies the NHCDC. So, the NHCDC is both local and international: it operates locally using an international methodology.

* 在附近会有其它的自然遗产保护决策中心吗? * * Will there be other NHCDC's nearby?

我们希望如此。建立一个自然遗产保护决策中心网络的最佳办法是建立一个源数据中心,并向人们展示它不但有用而且是非常有用。该中心继而成为发展建立其它中心的种子,然后通过共享其所包含的专业信息为人们提供帮助。 We hope so. The best way to establish a network of NHCDCs is to establish an original data center and demonstrate that it works and works well. This center then becomes a seed for growing other centers and provides nourishment through sharing expertise it has acquired.

* 我们这儿不是已经有了生物多样化项目吗?自然遗产保护决策中心跟它们有什么不同? * * Don't we already have biodiversity projects here? What makes the NHCDC different?

是的,这儿是已经有了生物多样化的项目。所有研究或与任何生物多样化方面有关的项目都可以被称为生物多样化项目。但是自然遗产保护决策中心既非一项研究也非一个短期的项目;它也非仅仅只从事某些特别的方面或生物多样化方面的工作。 Yes, there are biodiversity projects here. Anything that studies or deals with any aspect of biodiversity can be called a biodiversity project. But a NHCDC is neither a study nor a limited duration project; nor does it deal with some particular aspect or aspects of biodiversity.

确切说来,自然遗产保护决策中心会是一个长期的机构,提供“总是最新”的数据。而它将是全面的,它会收集并维护所有在当地发现的生物多样化要素的精确数据。 Rather, the NHCDC will be a permanent institution, providing "always current" data. And it will be comprehensive: it will collect and maintain precise data on all of the elements of biodiversity found here.

自然遗产保护决策中心在其它方面也与别的机构有着显著的区别。它是基于并与世界上最大的同类中心网络所兼容,这都是因为它所使用的核心方法。现今在全球范围内有大约100个这样的数据中心在投入使用。 The NHCDC will be different in another very significant way as well. It will be based on and compatible with the world's largest network of such centers, due to its underlying core methodology. There are nearly 100 such centers in active use around the globe at present.

必须一提的是在数据网络应用已如此悠长的历史中,人们最初的反应总是“我们这儿已经有了。”这在自然遗产保护决策中心的细节还没做好之前就已经发生过,而且让我们了解到自然遗产保护决策中心究竟和其它生物与生态数据工作中的区别是什么。最终,当然,这种反应并未真的变成自然遗产保护决策中心建立时不可逾越的障碍,而且实际上做出这种反应的那些人最后则成为了我们最大的支持者。 It should be noted that in the long history of the network, the initial reaction has always been, "We already have that here." This occurs before details of the NHCDC have been made clear and it is realized how a NHCDC is different from other biological and ecological data efforts. Ultimately, of course, this reaction has not proven to be an insurmountable obstacle to the establishment NHCDCs, and in fact those with this reaction ultimately become our biggest supporters.

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