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生物多样化保护组织所取得的成就、面临的挑战和所需的支持 BDC Achievements, Challenges, and Support

生物多样化保护组织的发起人和支持者在生物多样化保护中的三个目标起着决定性的作用。这三个目标也可以背看作是调整威尔逊教授提出的全球范围内所面临的战略性错误的三个步骤。 The founders and supporters of BDC are responsible for three significant achievements in the conservation of biodiversity. These may be thought of as three steps towards rectifying the strategic mistake which Professor Wilson argues the world is making.

首先要 First根据所面临的问题提出相应的理念、方法和规定。这些问题包括: is the development of concepts, methods, and protocols which address the questions: 什么因素在生物多样化中是切实受到威胁的?具体哪里是这些物种分布的区域,从而在进行项目建设时可以避免对这些宝贵物种造成伤害,并且能够科学、有效地对其采取保护举措。相较这些物种所分布的单个区域,系统地关注生态多样化因素(包括其种群和生态系统的类型)的状态更为简单、有效,同时可以收集每一个重要物种/因素的相关数据。分级这些因素,先是初级,然后最终以已有数据为基础进行科学量化,从而确定哪些需要优先保护。开发软件系统以确保概念工具能投入到实际应用中也是一项重要成就。在个人电脑出现之前,该软件已经更迭了数代,经过决策/数据中心的测试,然后又不断升级、改进。此系统的设计是保证其能长期使用的关键。 Which elements of biodiversity are in fact imperiled? Where exactly are these located on the landscape, so that proposed development projects can avoid destroying these valuable resources and positive, scientifically valid steps to preserve them can be taken? Focusing systematically on the status of biodiversity's elements (species and ecosystem types) rather than on the basically incomparable areas in which they occur was a simple but great stride forward, as was the gathering of data on each and every occurrence of elements of significance. Ranking elements, first preliminarily, then ultimately on the basis of occurrence data puts quantitative science behind conservation prioritizing. The development of software systems to enable implementation of the conceptual apparatus is also a major achievement. Starting back before the personal computer, then advancing with each leap in what hardware could enable, generation after generation of this software was drafted, tested in decision/data centers, and then further upgraded and improved. The design of the system is the major factor in helping it to endure.

其二 Second是在全球范围内推广该系统,对参与者进行培训而且将所有资源都融汇到一个网络中。保障该网络持久运作的根本是对于全球自然保护的进一步贡献,而这项工作永无尽头。此举成功的关键在于要意识到与州/省级政府机构建立合作关系,并让此系统满足其需要的重要性。政府是长久存在的几个要素之一,与其建立合作关系的最终目的是为了结束每个项目乃至整个网络体系只是短期研究的状态。取而代之的是,让其成变成永久的研究机构。这种合作关系也利于,可以说是非常利于将可用的资金都投入到该项事业中。推广这个系统更重要的一方面是除了相关政府部门之外,还让所有生态多样化资源保护的参与者、企业、机构、研究人员、少数民族群体及其他人士能更多地投身这项事业。该系统从科学到现实社会的决策制定的深远意义在于拓宽人们的认知,甚至是面对那些常常由于信息缺失而被排除在外的少数民族群体。其中一个很好的例子就是由生物多样化保护组织发起人建立的纳瓦霍自然遗产保护项目 is the propagation of this system throughout a substantial part of the world, the training of participants, and the tying of all together into a network. Securing this network on a lasting basis is a further contribution to world conservation -- one which has no end. This achievement rests on the key insight that entering into partnership with state and provincial government agencies and making the system meet their needs is essential. Government is one of the few things that endures forever, and the consequence of the partnership is to remove each program, and the network as a whole, from being limited-term studies. Instead they are enabled to become permanent institutions. This partnership also greatly -- very greatly -- expands the total funds available to the enterprise. A further aspect of propagation of the system is empowering all stakeholders in the biodiversity resource, businesses, organizations, researchers, ethnic minorities and others, in addition to government agencies. The system brings science to social decision-making in a broad sense by enabling knowledgeable participation even by groups such as ethnic minorities often effectively excluded from the process because of their lack of information. An instance of this particular type of enabling is found in the Navajo Natural Heritage Program, which BDC's founders built.

其三 Third是起步将此系统引进亚洲。我们的第一步是那些对亚洲地区感兴趣且想要在该地建立一个新机构的人士进行筛选,尽管现在我们的生物多样化保护组织还很弱小。在中国,生物多样化保护组织开始打造基础系统的相关技术版本,而且将其译成中文,之后也会将其引入到中亚地区。这是将我们的保护网络向广大新区域扩展的开始,同时也能帮我们发现更多新的生物多样化资源和那些亟待保护的高危物种。此外,生物多样化保护组织也开始同中国和中亚地区的当地机构建立合作关系,寻求他们的支持,从而更深广地开展我们的保护工作 is taking initial steps towards bringing this system to Asia. We began by selecting from the original effort those individuals who were interested in this new continent and were willing to launch a new "action project," as yet very small, which we now call BDC. In China, BDC has begun creating an appropriate-technology version of the basic system and translated this for use in Chinese and then again for use in Central Asia. This is a start on expanding the network to a vast new region, and to an entirely new source of biodiversity, one under particular threat. In addition, BDC has begun by establishing working relationships with local institutions in these two regions, thereby furthering the expansion effort.

生物多样化保护组织也对于我们所取得的其它成就深感骄傲。但是,生物多样化保护组织同样也面临着巨大的挑战。 BDC is proud to stand on many other achievements as well. But BDC faces significant challenges.

我们所面临的挑战 Challenges

生态多样化保护组织面临最大的挑战是找到可以让这个项目持续运转所需的资源。BDC's greatest challenge is finding the resources needed to sustain the effort it has begun.

如果要保护生物多样化免遭破坏,此前已有许多物种因人们对于生态资源的忽视而惨遭摧毁(尚且不提他们所蕴含的巨大价值),那么生物多样化保护组织的保护决策中心在亚洲地区所要做的不只是成立一个组织、证明其价值,更要将其扩展到其它地区。寻找相关资源能帮助生物多样化组织突破其重要的第一步,并让人们了解其迫切的需要的确是非常巨大的挑战。If further biodiversity destruction, much of it done in ignorance of the resources being destroyed (let alone of their ultimate value), is to be prevented, the sort of conservation decision center BDC is bringing to Asia needs to be not only established and proven to be of use, but widely expanded throughout many jurisdictions. Finding the resources simply to move beyond the important first step BDC has taken and begin to address this crying need is a very great challenge indeed.

在中国,生物多样化保护组织现在所面临的任务是要有一个成功的开始,在云南项目支持者的帮助下有个好的开端并建立生物多样化数据方面的权威资源。下一步是向需要此类数据的机构演示,并根据这些机构的需要为其展示自然遗产保护决策中心可以做些什么,以此可以保证我们的项目在中国有坚实的立足点,并且有可能将它扩展到其他省份。In China, BDC faces the task now of taking its successful beginning, a beginning achieved with the help of its supporters in Yunnan, and building something that stands out clearly as the definitive source of biodiversity data. The next step is then to demonstrate this fact to agencies that need data -- and also to demonstrate the NHCDC's ability to meet those needs. In this way a strong foothold in China can be secured, and the prospect of expanding to other provinces can even be entertained.

短期之内,我们面临的挑战还包括寻求资助,从而我们可以从只用在校大学生转向有固定的工作人员,聘用那些已经接受过生物多样化保护组织核心方法论培训的年轻科学工作者作为长期(时长约3-5年)的工作人员。我们需要植物学家、动物学家、生态学家以及数据管理员各一名,全职为昆明的保护中心工作。In the short term, this challenge consists mainly of finding funds to move beyond using graduate students for staff, and hiring for three to five years a permanent staff of young scientists from Yunnan trained by BDC in the core methodology. We need a botanist, a zoologist, an ecologist, and a data manager to work full time at the center in Kunming.

在中国的另一个挑战是建立一座桥梁,一座与北美地区网络相连的桥梁,它所起到的作用并不只是情感上的维系,而是知识与经验交流的双向连接,并可以确保相互之间的支持。我们需要帮助建立技术上和文化上的交流。Another challenge in China is to build a bridge -- a bridge to the existing network in the New World, one which is not merely a link of fellow-feeling, but a two-way utilitarian connection for trading knowledge and experience and for securing mutual support. We need help creating this technological and cultural exchange.

在中亚地区,生物多样化保护组织的挑战在于将这个基础项目发展成一个活跃的自然遗产保护决策中心,建立起这个国家前所未有却非常急需的数据库。在此所面临的挑战,同样也还是资金。In Central Asia, BDC's challenge is to move its proto effort, which lays down a systems base, into an active natural heritage conservation decision center building just the sort of database the country needs and which it has never had. The challenge here, again, is funding.

在中国和中亚地区,另一个挑战是要了解和学习当地处理事务的方式,这与在其他已经建立起保护网络的地区有很大的差异。比如,尤其在北美地区,不同的机构以及研究人员之间的数据共享是非常常见的。而在中国和中亚地区却并非如此。然而,建立一个官方的物种保护决策中心,与那些愿意一起推进这项使命的人士共享数据,从而可以改变在上述两个地区的现状,并在生物多样化的保护工作中达成双赢。In both China and Central Asia, a further challenge is to understand and deal with local ways of doing things which are significantly different from those in the jurisdictions in which the network currently operates. For example, in North America in particular, sharing of data among agencies and among researchers is common. In both China and Central Asia this is not the case. The creation of a new and authoritative decision center on conservation, however, one willing to share its data with those who can further its mission, has the potential to change this and then doubly benefit conservation of biodiversity.

脚注: Footnote:生物多样化保护组织已经克服的挑战包括将过去几十年中积累起来数量庞大的中国植物种类进行重新归类。参与到对中国植物种群研究的不止是中国科学院,还有全球各大植物研究所。生物多样化保护组织决策中心在云南省已经进行了大量的基础工作,建立了云南自然遗产保护决策中心,其所面临的挑战实际上是保持数据的一致性,因为后期通用的物种名称与前期录入的有所出入。在此项目开始之初,我们就已经面临着同样的挑战,然而它对在现存的植物种类记录依然有着持续的影响,云南自然遗产保护决策中心大量的前期数据就是从早期的数据库中提取的,需要采用新的分类法进行整理、更新。Challenges BDC has already overcome include those created by the complete revision of the taxonomy of all Chinese plant species over the past dozen years. Flora of China has involved not only the Chinese Academy of Sciences, but major botanical institutions throughout the world. The decision center BDC has laid groundwork for in Yunnan province, YN-NHCDC, faced the challenge of, in effect, trying to keep score while many of the players out on the field are changing their names. The initial part of this challenge has been met, but it has continuing consequences one of which is that the thousands, in some cases millions, of specimens in existing botanical collections, where YN-NHCDC mines much initial data, are in widely varying stages of update to the new taxonomy.

我们所需的支持 Support

生物多样化保护组织已在一个新地区扎根,对此我们非常感激那些给予我们信任和支持的人们。在建立和推进亚洲项目方面,我们所获得最大的支持来自于各方面的志愿者们,尤其是亚洲地区的伙伴们,他们为此付出了时间并在专业方面提供了很多帮助。我们的发起机构—生物多样化研究中心(BDI)同样也给了我们极大的支持。有超过200多个组织和个人为生物多样化保护组织的试验在线导览平台提供了非常棒的影像资料。在我们的图片库页面下方有相关的网页链接。生物多样化保护组织将这些资源传播给他人,同时也接受他们跟我们共享的资源,这是我们项目中的新举措。布莱尔慈善基金会为我们的科考提供了有力支持。《国家地理》杂志为生物多样化保护组织在乌兹别克斯坦的项目给予了很多帮助,此外之前由隶属美国国际开发署的国际教育学院所发起的生态链项目也有份参与,不过现在我们需要开始着手真正的基础建设工作。我们目前所面临的挑战,如前文所述,是寻找资源而不仅只是停留在探索阶段。BDC has set foot on a new continent, and we are grateful to those who have believed in us and supported us at the very outset of the journey. Our greatest support in this has so far come from the volunteer efforts of those, including especially those in Asia, who have contributed time and expertise. The Blair Charitable Foundation has helped us by supporting some of our exploratory efforts. BDC was provided with an early grant for Uzbekistan by National Geographic, and another by the former Ecolinks program of USAID-IIE, but now we need to start building on the groundwork laid. Our challenge now, as mentioned, is to find the resources to go beyond the exploratory phase. Our parent, The BioDiversity Institute (BDI), has also been key. One aspect of this is that over 200 individuals and organizations contributed imagery -- wonderful imagery -- to an online field guide which BDI experimented with in order to begin learning how the internet can advance our goals. A link to the credits page for these images is given at the bottom of our gallery pages on this site. BDI has passed this resource and others on to us, the new action program for conserving biodiversity in Asia.

生态多样化保护组织采用的是合作的方式, 通过现有的网络成功地运用此种方式,与政府机构、土地管理局、各种企业、机构和研究人员共同合作。我们的合作方也包括长远的基金资源,为建立决策中心提供三到五年的资金支持,足以支持其到真正发挥作用的那天,对于那些可以给予其长期支持的机构而言这一点至关重要。在中国,值得一提的是,项目的启动成本要比在北美地区低得多,即意味着项目可以更长远的开展。BDC works on a partnership model, one derived from the successful use of that model in the existing network -- partnerships with government agencies, land managers, businesses, organizations, researchers and others. Partners also include farsighted funding sources providing grants needed to establish decision centers for three to five years, long enough for them to establish their usefulness, indeed criticality, to agencies capable of supporting them permanently. In China, notably, start-up costs are lower than they were in North America, which means grants will go further.

赞助人所支持的概念性框架。 Funder-support conceptual frameworks. 有些赞助人主要的关注点是为生物多样化保护组织的核心任务—即保护生态的多样化,提供支持。在此,爱德华·奥斯本·威尔逊教授向世人发出呼吁,我们必须认识到我们最宝贵的资源正在迅速的消亡,并且应该采取行动去保护它们,呼吁并行动起来乃重中之重。对此的支持需要人们对于生物多样化保护组织所接受的巨大挑战背后所带来的机遇以及在一个新地区所面临的复杂状况有着充分的理解。不过现下所需的支持只是开始初期的投入,然后可以扩展到整个亚洲地区,就好像我们在北美地区所做的那样。而其他的赞助人则关注的是建立跨国沟通的桥梁。这些赞助人所看到的不止是建立在美好愿景之上的简单合作关系,更多的是想要建立一个联系东西方的长久的合作关系,并在亚洲地区开始构建一个新的网络。通过这座桥梁,我们可以与对方交流、分享各自的想法、知识以及经验,从而取得共赢。关于这个方面有很多有趣的合作方式。其中很重要的一种是在美国的各州和亚洲的省份之间建立特别的合作关系。像云南这样有着丰富的生态和人文环境的省份,当然,可以从各种各样的合作渠道中获益匪浅,同时也可以让其在大洋彼岸的合作方受益。另外一个对于有些赞助人颇有吸引力的方面是以此向飞虎队致敬。这支由美国人志愿前往中国的空军,在珍珠港事件前后都一直扮演着跨洋桥梁的重要角色。飞虎队的总部所在地依然还在,而且离云南自然遗产保护决策中心的办公室很近。在第二次世界大战中,飞虎队为保卫中国做出了巨大贡献,而现在我们为那时飞虎队英雄们所守卫的家园提供生态多样化的保护正是向他们致敬的最佳方式。还有一种方式是围绕亚洲和美洲的自然和文化遗产重建合作联系。Some funders will primarily be interested in supporting BDC's core mission, preservation of biodiversity. Here the primary call to action is the plea that Prof. E.O. Wilson is making -- that we must recognize how our most valuable resource is being rapidly diminished and respond with conservation efforts. Support of this framework comes with full understanding of both the enormous opportunities BDC's venture presents and also of the complexity of the new continent, but support here is an investment in beginning a process which is capable of expanding over an entire continent, as it did in North America. Other funders will primarily be interested in establishing bridges across the wide Pacific. Here funders see the chance to go beyond simple relationships of good will and to instead build a permanent link between the established network in the West and a new budding network in the East. Over this bridge ideas, knowledge, and experience can pass in both directions with beneficial results at both ends. There are a number of interesting variations individual funders may have on this framework. The main one is to build particular bridges between your particular state or province and a state or province in Asia. A province as diverse as Yunnan, of course, would benefit from numerous links and would benefit all of its partners on this side of the Pacific as well. Another variation that will appeal to some is to honor the spirit of the Flying Tigers. This voluntary air force of North Americans in China, both before and after Pearl Harbor, was an early bridge across the wide Pacific. The Flying Tigers' headquarters building still exists and is only a few blocks from the YN-NHCDC office. The FT fought to preserve China, and grants now to preserve biodiversity in the FT's home province would honor this spirit. Another variation builds around those with an Asian-American heritage seeking to establish meaningful links between the two continents, links which could ultimately benefit all humanity.

此外,如果资金充足的话,生物多样化保护组织可以在进行生态多样化项目的地区取得显著的成绩,不但可以支持生物多样化保护组织的核心任务,而且同时有益于与此相关的社会因素。譬如说,通过增加生物多样化保护组织在亚洲地区建立的自然遗产保护决策中心工作的专业人才和基础员工,从而实现将生物多样化运用到制造新型抗癌药物以及具有抗药性结核病药物的可能性。云南在此方面就是一个很好的例子。该地区的物种之丰富远胜于美国和加拿大的任何地区,并有着极大的潜力,但是仍然需要对这些极具潜力的物种所分布的地区进行确认和记录。另外一个例子是气候变化的测量。同样,云南是一个很好的例子。这个省份因其从南到北完全迥异的气候可被视为是一个绝佳的气候变化实验室。如果我们的自然遗产保护决策中心有足够的资金支持,在气候变化方面我们可以从一个全新的角度去进行研究。In addition, if funds are available, BDC can make significant contributions to areas of biodiversity work which both supplement BDC's core mission and at the same time advance the interests of related social causes. One example is climate change measurement. Yunnan is virtually a climate change laboratory due to the extreme climatic and elevational variations in the province from north to south. More can be done to exploit this opportunity for a new angle on climate change if our NHCDC there is funded to do it. Another example is that the potential of biodiversity to produce new weapons in the fight against diseases such as cancer and drug-resistant tuberculosis can usefully be pursued by adding specialists to the basic staff of NHCDCs. Yunnan is a case in point. Its biodiversity is far greater than any US or Canadian jurisdiction, and holds great potential, but there is still need to identify and document exactly where that potential lies in terms of the development of new pharmaceuticals.

致赞助人: Funder-support notes. 生物多样化保护组织在成本控制方面已经做的相当不错。其所获得的资金支持能都被完全用于人员雇佣、培训以及资源互换,这算是相当物尽其用的情况了。此外,在亚洲地区人员成本远低于北美和加拿大,所以我们的资金可以更大化的用于支持整个项目。生物多样化保护组织对于在其他方面所获得的支持,譬如在资源交流方面,以及网站所需的图片等等,都非常感激。 BDC has managed to secure significant amounts of what would would otherwise be normal overhead costs. All grants made to BDC therefore can be put entirely towards staffing, training, and interchange -- an unusual "bang-for-the-buck" situation. Moreover, staffing costs in Asia are significantly lower than in the US and Canada, so dollars go further in supporting these efforts. BDC is also grateful to receive donations of items such as frequent flier miles to support its interchanges, digital images for its websites, etc.

联系方式: Contact info. 与生物多样化保护组织联系最好是直接给总部办公室发电子邮件,这样我们可以根据您的需要与亚洲当地的合作伙伴建立联系。生物多样化保护组织官方电邮是,中国办公室的地址是:中国云南省昆明市云南大学西院7-02,生物多样化保护组织。邮编 650091 The best way to contact BDC is by email to its international office, which can then if desired put you in touch with its local partners in Asia. BDC's principal email address is BDC's main mailing address in China is The BioDiversity Conservancy, Yunnan Da Xue, Xi Yuan 7-02, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650091 China.